We all love to feel some sweetness in our mouth. The sweetness always comes with a feeling of refreshment. But this very own sweetness can become a bitter enemy to our life: “Diabetes”. The prevalence of Diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of Diabetes is higher in men than women.
The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increment in the proportion of people older than 65 years of age.
Insulin hormone is secreted from pancreas and it controls the glucose level in the blood. Diabetes is a condition of elevated blood sugar or glucose levels. Glucose in the blood increases with insulin deficiency and insulin resistance of the tissues. Therefore, the blood sugar level increases. Diabetes cannot be cured, but the disease can be controlled.
There are four types of diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes, the body does not produce Insulin. The body breaks down the sugars and starches you eat into a simple sugar called glucose, which is being used for energy. Type 1 Diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. Only 5% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. Genetic factors also affect this condition.
Type 2 Diabetes is also called as Diabetes Mellitus (DM). As a result of insulin resistance, the pancreas responds by producing greater amounts of insulin in order to manage blood glucose level. As insulin over production occurs over a very long period of time, the insulin producing cells in the pancreas become weak. If someone is diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes he should have lost 50 – 70% of their insulin producing cells.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Those with Diabetes at the time of pregnancy also have a risk of developing type 2 Diabetes between the next 10 to 20 years. Among ten pregnant mother’s five have risk of becoming affected by type 2 Diabetes.
Not only above types, there are many Diabetes Mellitus cases occurring due to pancreatic failure, genetic defects in family history and post-surgical complications. There are three different tests used to determine pre-diabetes or Diabetes. Hemoglobin A1C test, fasting plasma glucose test (FPG) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) are the main tests to identify Diabetes.
When considering these types of Diabetes conditions, most prominent category of Diabetes is type 2. Initially, type 2 Diabetes can often be managed with healthy eating and regular physical activities. Over time most people with type 2 Diabetes need Insulin. It is important to note that this is the natural progression of the condition and taking drugs or insulin as soon as they are required can result in fewer long-term complications. Type 2 Diabetes is a progressive condition in which the body becomes resistant to the normal effects of insulin or gradually loses the capacity to produce enough insulin in the pancreas. Diabetes Mellitus is associated with modifiable lifestyle risk factors and also has strong genetic and family related risk factors.
When considering these two types, type 2 Diabetes prevalence is higher than type 1. It represents 85–90% of all cases of Diabetes. It usually develops in adults over the age of 45 years but is increasingly occurring in younger age groups including children, adolescents and young adults. People with a family history of type 2 Diabetes or from particular ethnic backgrounds are getting some foot ulcer problems.
The risk factors for Diabetes vary according to the type of Diabetes. Some risk factors can be altered, but some risk factors cannot. However, if a person reduces the risk factors for Diabetes, he or she can escape from Diabetes. Therefore, knowing such risk factors is a perceived sense. So, let’s look at the risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus.
Family history, environmental factors such as exposure to certain viral infections, harmful cells that are present in the immune system such as auto antibodies, dietary factors, intake of dietary supplements, reduced intake of vitamin D, low birth weight and geographic factors are the major factors for type 1 Diabetes.
The amount of fat in body increases, resistance for hormones occurs causing higher risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes. Low physical activities contribute to weight gain. Family history, ethnicity, age (with the increase of age, the risk of Type 2 Diabetes increases), gestational Diabetes, high blood pressure and unusual Cholesterol level are the main risk factors of type 2 Diabetes.
Both Diabetes types can be prevented and effect can be reduced. Type 2 Diabetics can easily be prevented by doing modifications of lifestyle. For example making healthy food choices, staying at a healthy weight (proper weight for height), and moving more every day reduce getting type 2 diabetes. When body weight goes into a healthy range, weight can be maintained by controlling calorie intakes.
To maintain healthy weight more concerns should be focused on the diet. Eating nutritious foods like vegetables (at least 3 vegetables for day), fruits (at least one fruit for day), green leaves, grains, nuts, beans, cereals and rice with bran are controlling your blood glucose level in optimum level. Choosing low-fat or fat-free foods helps to maintain healthy life. Reduce consumption of oily foods & deep fried foods and avoiding alcoholic beverages helps to maintain blood glucose levels. Not only that missing breakfast increase getting risk of type 2 Diabetes.
Engaging in physical activity, regularly maintaining the healthy blood glucose level, reduce getting complications due to Diabetes. Take a walk or use stair ways instead of a lift to move up & down in a building, actively doing daily activities, reducing the time spent behind the television, reducing playing games with sitting position, avoiding working in front of the computer for a long time, take part in an effective physical activity program for weight loss (gym workout), have a minimum of five days in a week or moderate-intensity exercises for about 30-45 minutes a day (jogging, walking) are more helpful to reduce getting Diabetes. If not controlled calorie intake and usage may be have occurring high complications in Diabetes.
Controlling high blood pressure and blood cholesterol level help to avoid Diabetes Mellitus. Regularly engaging in exercise, low-salt consumption, low-sugar and low-fat consumption, using recommended drugs help to avoid Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes is a complex diseases that cannot be treated by drugs. So let’s avoid sweet death and be protect from all types of Diabetes.